About 1860 the New York Skating Club adopted a skate, which was made entirely out of metal, and attached to the foot automatically without the aid of straps or other fastenings. This was brought to Berlin by one Mr Watkins in the year 1862. It was made entirely out of iron or steel, and for the heel fastening an oval plate was used, with a rectangular gripper; the front part of the skate was then fastened tight to the skating boot by means of clamps. Strange to say, until this day, in spite of all modern improvements this method of fastening has proved itself to be the most practical for general use. A further noticeable improvement was the invention of the Halifax skate, which for its simplicity surpassed all others previously seen. This Halifax skate came into use all over the world & became a universal favourite amongst skaters.