The following year he was still the only competitor to execute this move and became known as Mr Triple Axel. However so quickly do technical barriers fall these days in 1983 four other skaters also accomplished this jump in the World Championship. Indeed, the Russian champion, Alexander Fadeev, went one step further, combining his triple axel with a double toe loop jump. He also did a double axel landing in a back sit spin and tried, unsuccessfully, a quadruple toe loop. No one has vet accomplished a quad in competition but Fadeev, Orser, and two Americans, Brian Boitano and Mark Cockerell, have executed them in practice. This barrier will, no doubt, fall soon.
Skating blades have teeth at the front called toe rakes or picks. These are used in certain jumps almost as a pole-vaulter uses his pole. Because of this, competitors in the free skating use skates with very big bottom toes. The toe loop is the simplest of the one-rotation (360 Degrees) jumps. The skater takes off on a right back outside edge, digging his left toe rake into the ice to assist the take-off, and turns counter-clockwise for a full revolution before landing on his right leg on a back outside edge.
In 1980 Grzegorz Filipowski, the 13-year-old Polish champion, made history by combining two triple jumps, both toe loops, in the World Championship. His marks did not reflect this accomplishment and he was placed thirteenth out of twenty-two in this section. The West German press complained that he was given marks for his height, not for his skating ability, and the organisers presented him with the trophy for the unluckiest skater. Since then Cockerell has performed the combination, while Fadeev has combined two different triple jumps, the salchow and the toe loop.
Double and triple toe loops are a very familiar part of all competitions and are sometimes known by other names. Some Britons call toe loops cherry flips, or talk about a cherry. Americans confuse the issue further by calling a certain version of toe loop - in which a left one-foot turn is made before stepping onto the take-off foot - a toe walley.
Almost all jumps are landed on a back outside edge since this is the most stable position for landing. Just as people can be right or left-handed, skaters can be right or left-footed. Most skaters choose to land on their right foot but a minority, like the 1981 and 1983 World champions, Denise Biellmann of Switzerland, and Rosalynn Sumners, USA, opt for their left. This means all their jumps will be mirror images of the illustrations in this book. (Interestingly a right-handed person is not necessarily right-footed.)